How to write a kick-ass essay?


Friends, I have already blurted out that I won’t be going for Civil services exams anymore. So, I have decided to share some of my ‘sacred-tactics’ which I learned through my experiences while preparing for this exam.

One of the oft-asked question which haunts any CSE aspirant is ‘How to write a kick-ass essay?’ and by ‘kick-ass’ I mean the essay which can fetch you awesome marks. Unfortunately, like any other aspect of this exam, you can’t be 100% sure of getting awesome marks even after writing a jaw-dropping essay. But still, a well structured essay without any technical blunders is bound to fetch you more than average marks.
But before I start, I should remind you of the golden rule (which I will be reminding you pretty often)-

Practice makes a man perfect.

And the technique that I am going to tell you solely depends on practice. The more you will do it, the more you will earn from it. And yes,

It’s worth it!

So, let’s start with the usual everyone-knows-it-but-noone-follows-it type of rules for essay writing in Civil services Examination.


I will be discussing mainly about point 5 because it’s the most important aspect here. But before the real show starts, let’s show the difference these rules can make. Read these two paragraphs and see for yourselves.


(I might have gone a tad too overboard, but I can’t help it. :D)

Now, let’s move on to the real deal –

How to plan your essay properly?


While writing an essay, it always helps to have a preset structure. However, there are some people who think that having a preset structure removes the taste from essay, but I don’t agree to that. In fact, having a preset structure helps you plan your time effectively and jot down the points in a more efficient way. That’s why I use a fixed essay structure and believe me – having it is like half the job done already!

Structure of an essay is like backbone of the body

A body lacking backbone can’t bear any load – leave alone the load of UPSC preparations! And having a sturdy and well planned structure will make your essay a kick-ass one without much effort. You have to just fill up the blocks.

Moreover, if you think it will make all your essays look alike, Mister, you are wrong! And you will see for yourself why.

I have made this structure after doing research from a number of places and then improvising on it a bit.

Structure of the essay


  1. Introduction

    1. Definitions
    2. Interpretations
    3. Thesis Statement
    4. Thesis Connector
  2. Mini-thesis 1

    1. Supporting arguments
    2. Supporting examples
    3. Mini-thesis connector
  3. Mini-thesis 2

    1. Supporting arguments
    2. Supporting examples
    3. Mini-thesis connector
  4. Mini-thesis 3

    1. Supporting arguments
    2. Supporting examples
    3. Mini-thesis connector
  5. Conclusion

    1. Thesis restatements
    2. Thesis connector restatement
    3. Concluding remark

And you are done! Hey.. don’t look at me with that puzzled face! Keep calm and be cool as I will explain each step one by one.

Let’s write the essay on ‘Science and Technology is a panacea to present day growth and security challenges’.

Now that we have topic we can start planning our essay. And planning starts with asking the right questions. Ask yourself these questions first-

  • Do you understand the topic clearly?
  • Do you agree to the topic? (In this example- Is science really a panacea or not?)
  • Do you agree conditionally or unconditionally?
  • Why you do/don’t agree to the topic?

Think about these questions thoroughly and write down any important points that come to your mind. You will need these points later on. Now that you have done your thought process, let’s move forward.


Break your topic into smaller parts. And then define them. In this example, I can break them into – science and technology, panacea, growth challenges and security challenges. Define each and every one of them in 1-2 sentences. What do you mean by panacea? What are the growth challenges etc.


Interpretations are extremely necessary. Examiner must know your angle of view before judging your essay and hence, you must express it. Always remember-

Essays are personal opinions with arguments.

For that, you have to tell how are you interpreting things. In this case, you may interpret the growth & security challenges of India, of the world, of a city. Similarly, you may interpret panacea as ‘complete solution’ or ‘complete solution provider’. Its on you and will decide how you will proceed further. And now the most important part-

Thesis Statement

As I have already said that essays are basically opinions backed up with facts, so you have to clear your stand in the very beginning itself. Answer the question asked in the topic. Make up your stand and make it loud and clear in front of examiner. This is important.

An essay without thesis statement is like a body without soul.

Give your essay’s body a clear and beautiful thesis statement. For example, in this case, the thesis statement will be –

“Despite of all the technological advancements and their associated benefits, Science and Technology can not be said to be the panacea for all the security and growth challenges of present day.”

Here I have taken a negative stand but you can take a positive stand too. Taking your stand will help you in further steering your essay.


Your main task in writing an essay is to make the examiner agree to your thesis statement.

And for that, you need arguments. Solid-examples-backed-up-well-balanced arguments. That’s why essay writing is an art as well as a science at the same time. You have to create something beautiful and original.

We will talk about the ‘Thesis connectors’ later on. Before that, let’s talk about-


As I said, you have to provide arguments in support of your thesis statement. Just because you said that science is not a panacea, no one is going to believe you. It’s not your Facebook wall where people believe each and every thing you write, but it’s a much less trustworthy arena of civil services essays.

So for our thesis statement, we have to come up with 3-4 core arguments which we will call mini-thesis. Why mini-thesis? Because they will be backed up by further examples and arguments.

Why 3 mini-thesis? Because it looks good. It follows 5 paragraph principle of essay writing. Less than that will be insufficient and more than that will be too much to think. But you can come up with up-to 5 mini-thesis. However, always remember-

Redundant ideas, poor spelling and bad grammar are the spoilers.

Only enough practice can save you from them.

In this example, one mini-thesis could be-

“Science is not an independent entity to act towards growth and security challenges, it needs cooperation from political leadership too.”

Can you see it now? Here this mini-thesis is supporting my main thesis statement. Another mini-thesis statement could be-

Neither Technology nor the growth and security challenges are static in nature. As the technology is evolving day by day, so are the challenges.”

Now make the third mini-thesis yourself as an exercise. I would like to see that in the comments.

How to check whether your mini-thesis is correct or not?
It may occur to you whether your mini-thesis is pointing in the right direction or not. Fortunately, there is an easy way to check that. Fill up this template and see if it feels right –(Thesis statement) because (mini thesis statement)

Lets take an example. I will use my main thesis statement and my mini-thesis statement 1 to check if it feels right.

Despite of all the technological advancements and their associated benefits, Science and Technology can not be said to be the panacea for all the security and growth challenges of present day because Science is not an independent entity to act towards growth and security challenges – it needs cooperation from political leadership too.

I think you have got my point now.

Supporting Arguments and Examples

As you can see that your ‘mini-thesis’ are after all, thesis statements. They still need to be argued and shouted and fighted in order to give them their literary-rights! You have to give balanced arguments and examples from all the relevant fields. Make it glorious and wonderful. Show all of your creativity.

For example, in support of my first mini-thesis, I can give example of the cold war era when the drastic technological advancements were a result of strong political will. Then I can give example of Digital India– Technology was there already but it came as a solution only after political will. There are many such examples. You just have to look for it. Give at least 3 such examples and supporting arguments for each mini-thesis.

This is the part that makes the real ‘body’ of your essay. I would like to know the examples that you would have given for my second mini-thesis. Do write in comments if you want.

Thesis Connectors

By now you have got all the building blocks for your essay, but to make it a ‘kick-ass’ essay, you have to connect those blocks. The connectors will help to make smooth transitions between those blocks rather than rough uncomfortable jumps.

These connectors are statements or short para that will end the ongoing discussion while introducing the next thing we are going to talk about. But how to make those connectors?

Simple. Make a short para containing your thesis statement and the sneak-peek of your mini-thesis. In this example, it could be something like-

Panacea means a complete solution and Science can’t be taken as a complete solution. The reasons lies in both the solution and the problem. The problem is dynamic, ever changing. For a dynamic problem, we need a dynamic solution and that too a futuristic solution. If we can’t solve a problem before the problem even arises, we can’t call it a panacea. Another reason is the dependence of technology on other fields to act as a ‘full-fledged’ solution. Science is not independent in the society nor is the polity unaffected by science. Both of them have to complement each other. ”Β  – And then write your mini-thesis 1 in bold/ underline.

Similarly, you have to write the mini-thesis connectors.

Thesis Restatements and Concluding remark

Now you are in your concluding part. The game is almost over and you have made your impression. Now you have to give a smooth ending to your masterpiece. Because what starts well has to end well, right?

Start this end with a thesis restatement. Restate your thesis in other words such that content remains the same. This reiterates your foundation on which this essay is based. However, try to show optimism in your conclusion. In this example, this can be done as-

“Science and technology is changing our world more than it has done ever solving numbers and numbers of challenges. However, ever changing growth and security challenges, dependence of science and technology on a number of factors to be really effective stops it from being a panacea, the complete solution.”

The concluding remark should be too generalized, preferably related to humanity. It will be the last sentence of your essay. It can be something like-

“Science has always been humanity’s companion, sometimes as a boon, sometimes as a bane. But its infinite capabilities can’t be denied to make tomorrow a much better place compared to what today is.”

So, that is how you will plan your essay. And after planning in such an excruciating detail, writing your essay will be super smooth if not a pleasure! So Hop on!

Before I end this post, let’s have a quick diagrammatic representation.

essay blog

Neither do I say that this is the only way to write nor is it the best one. This is the method which I liked and adopted. You may go for it, may not go for it or may come up with something that develops from this one! You are free to do that. Do experiments and practice a lot. Because that’s how you will secure your place in the coveted list.

So dear folks, thanks for reading this. If you have any doubts, you can always drop a comment down here. If I have missed something, do mention in the comments and I will add those points in this post.

One more thing, please spread the word as much as possible. I will be more than thankful to you. πŸ™‚

And if you are ‘the doer’ rather than just ‘the listener’, I would like to see your structure for the following essays in the comments-

  1. India is the superpower of tomorrow
  2. Corruption is a necessary evil
  3. First step in revamping democracy is revamping media

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68 thoughts on “How to write a kick-ass essay?

  1. Hello Sagar, Your article is helpful.

    My take on – ‘India is superpower of tomorrow ”

    1. Introduction
    a) India – Golden sparrow + Transition + Modern World largest Democracy
    b) Superpower- In its own Unique way.

    2. Content
    a) Yes. Because of multi-dimensional reasons:-
    1. Resources+ Demography+ Political+ cultural+ Economic (Short para on each aspect , integrated)
    2. Administrative+ Foreign policy- Panchsheel+ Gujral+ PM’s recent visit.
    3. Examples and arguments.

    b) Challenges ahead-
    1. Poverty+ Basic Necessities+ Stability+ Internal Politics
    2. Economic- Infrastructure+ Manufacturing- MSME+ FDI
    3. Farmers- Management of Agriculture

    c) Globalization-
    1. Interdependent world+ Cooperation+Competition+ Convergence
    2. Examples+ Arguments

    3. Conclusion/ Way Forward
    a) India has everything. Indians need to change, adapt, forward thinking.
    b) Quote of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam.

    Hope, this write-up is according to ‘structure’ required in CSE.


  2. devvrat

    Hi Sagar tx for the wonderful write up . u mentioned about to write the mini thesis and underline them. Did you mean to write them as sub heading or to write the mini thesis in next para and underline them ?


  3. Abhijeet

    Hi sagar…great blog…as u know the essays on 18th and after reading ur blog one thought has been troubling me….my doubt is related to the thesis and sub thesis aspect…in ur essay u have taken a clear one sided stance against the topic…my question to u is that whether we can have a dual stand in thesis and sub thesis part wherein we can putting both sides of arguments…for example, thesis 1 related to stand against view and then subthesis as well as a thesis 2 showing stand supporting the issue and subthesis and then conclude..all I want to ask is do we have to take a fixed pro or against stand for a topic throughout the essay or can we have a to sided essay showing both sides ?…TIA


    1. Hi Abhijeet,
      The Thesis statement shows your stand for the topic.It may be ‘for’ or it may be ‘against’. There is nothing like two different thesis statements, because that will show indecisiveness, isnt’it? Subthesis statements can be written on more of a balanced side, but then you have to be careful enough as its main purpose is to support your main thesis statement.
      In my view, taking side is extremely important. It gives a direction to your essay. Your reader must know where the essay is heading to. Essay should be balanced but decisive. But then, I am not the final authority on essays. If you feel like doing it, give it a try. That’s the beauty of CSE, you never know what the examiner will like.

      All the best πŸ™‚


  4. Ankur
  5. sagar

    Sir in interpretation part wt r v suppose to write like the question of essay or the way v r about to write either for or against


    1. Interpretation means how you are going to treat the topic. If you are going to treat ‘poverty’ as the ‘inability to visit starbucks’, then let it be. Purpose of this part is to let the examiner know beforehand the scope of your essay.

      Liked by 1 person

  6. ican

    (Please check Introduction)
    Privacy means s space required for any affair which by which dignity of individual, security of individual and nation realised. It is the affair behind barrier.Transparency is the ability to see beyond barrier. Means both are coinsides of each other. Government is the body who governs its subject citizens for their welfare and prosperity. In fact citizens themselves had given power to being governed by government in democracy. Transparency in governance means accountability of government towards citizens. Privacy in the governance is deliberate attempt to maintain the confidentiality in national interest and security. Transparency for citizens is the honest attempt of citizens behaviour wherever it interface with government and in national interest on the other hand privacy of the citizens is implied in right to life.Overall in the debate of privacy vs transparency government should be transparent to its subject citizens but at the same time citizens should be transparent in behaviour which is required at interface with government. Privacy should be respected as the right for citizens and as a necessity in some government affairs.


  7. Spyirs

    Hi Sagar

    An excellent post on essay…I read it properly and really enjoyed it. But, if I may add, It is a huge confidence booster when you see the external validity of a technique in terms of actual marks by UPSC. So can you share the sort of marks you got using this technique in Essay Paper in Civil Services Exam if you are ok with it.

    Thank you so much anyways.


    1. Hi,

      In my first mains in 2013, it would be hard to believe, but I came up with this structure the night before my mains essay paper. Still I managed to get 124.
      In my second mains, doubts about the ‘IAS’ job were already fogging my mind and so I had no writing practice. I failed to manage time between two essays and ended up screwing the second one. I got 128 marks.


      1. Spyirs

        Hi Sagar

        Oh! Now I am confused. Actually I got 124 this time in essay with no such strategy. I presented positives and negatives of the debate in a simple manner and concluded In generic terms. Eventually I did get a rank and I got IRS this time but had I done better in essay I would have had a much better rank. I know it sounds a bit childish, but would you still recommend this strategy as it is quite possible that if you would have managed time better you could have done much better in terms of marks.

        Thank you for your help.


        1. Hello!

          Yes. I certainly do advice this strategy. I am pretty sure that if one will execute this strategy well in the exam, he/she will get more than average marks. I think it will help you in jumping from IRS to IAS this year.

          All the best! πŸ™‚


  8. ican

    I have prepared thesis and mini thesis for one topic by using techniques you have taught. (Not above mentioned topic but taken from insights of India).Can you check for it.Where should I send it?


  9. ecebloggers

    Have tried to make thesis and mini thesis statements for topic 2. Please share your suggestions

    Corruption is a necessary evil
    1. definition
    o corruption refers to misuse of public office for private gain
    o the gain could be monetary or in kind
    o A necessary evil means it needs to tolerated in society despite inconvenience as it has utility
    β€’ Interpretation
    o Indian bureaucracy is riddled with hierarchy and redtapism
    o Corruption provides a means to overcome this and get things done
    o It is now a new normal and part of daily life of common man
    2. Thesis
    o Corruption has grown by mammoth proportions in India. It has got integrated in official processes. Right from birth to death certification, things get done only through corrupt means. Therefore today corruption is seen by many as a necessary evil. But with advent of technology and various administrative reforms, corruption can be tackled effectively and eradicated

    3. Mini thesis 1
    o Reforms in telecom and railways show that corruption need not be a necessary evil
    4. Mini thesis 2
    o Legal reforms like lokpal, whistle blower act reduce scope for corruption
    5. Mini thesis 3
    o rights based framework has made people more vigilant and aware
    6. Mini thesis restatement
    o India for long has borne the brunt of corruption. It has made several government programs ineffective and perpetuated inequality in society. However reforms like Aadhar, Black money law reduce scope for corruption. Corruption which today is a rule will soon become an exception.


    1. ecebloggers

      Thanks for review though its still not clear .
      You mean to say thesis statement should be ambivalent? In your blog you said thesis statement should make the stand loud and clear.

      To the question raised by topic My answer going by thesis statement is With technological interventions and governance reforms corruption is no longer a necessary evil.


      1. Sorry for being unclear. Yes, your thesis statement should make the stand loud and clear.

        Your thesis statement is good. πŸ™‚

        Can you write the mini-thesis statements too?


    2. Hi,

      Your definition and interpretation part is flawless. But, I think you still haven’t got the clear idea about thesis statement and hence, the mini-thesis statements.

      Thesis statement is the answer to the question asked by the topic. Always take the topic as a question posed to you to which you are required to give your opinion. In this case, the question is -“Is corruption a necessary evil?”

      Now you have to give a balanced reply to above question in a single statement and that will be your thesis statement. By your structure, it is evident that you don’t agree with the statement, so I will give you an example of ‘for’ the statement leaving the ‘against’ part for you.

      My thesis statement is –

      “Going by the rule book and work-efficiency don’t always go hand in hand and its a must to have a balance between the two. Killing the efficiency just for the sake of impractical ethics doesn’t seem right, thereby suggesting that corruption is a necessary evil.”


  10. pls reply

    i sent u message at facebook but it went in ur other folder.pls check.

    ps: results are out, as very much expected i am nowhere in the list.


  11. nps

    Sir I have one doubt.
    If we give some thesis. Then you are saying that in following paragraphs, we should give mini thesis conforming to main thesis. But if we write like this, then essay will be lopsided. If we want to give anti-thesis points also, How can we give it?


    1. Hi,

      Giving thesis doesn’t means you have to make ‘one sided’ thesis. Your thesis statement should be balanced in itself. And hence, everything will follow as balanced ones. For example –

      Bad thesis – “Keeping in view the past present and future, it can ascertained that India is tomorrow’s superpower.”
      Good thesis – “There is an immense possibility of India being tomorrow’s superpower, provided it gets a fertile ground for growth and development and serious work is done over it.”

      Now see the difference between first and second one.


  12. Hi Sagar, Thank You for writing this blog. It would be helpful for many.
    I am now in third attempt. In my first attempt. In 2013 , I got only 70s/250. In 2014, I got 119/250. So, Essay has been always a spoiler for me.
    I am sending you my few of my practice essay. Will ping you in ForumIas.
    i will be always grateful to you if you can check and point out how to improve.

    Thank You.


  13. ican

    Examples for second mini thesis- Information technology advanced beyond or imagination. Almost in every field of our life it has applications. When we purchase new cell phone, laptop, desktop we have to purchase anti virus with it separately to protect our data and operating system safe from viruses.With one anti virus comes in the market new virus being created so again we have to update our anti virus.
    Operating systems need to be updated into new versions otherwise it will not support many new applications.
    Those who bought pagers ten years ago now became obsolete technology. Same with who bought simple version of NOKIA cell phones 5 years before had to buy new android phones if they wanted to connect with their friends via watssapp or Facebook.
    This needs spending of money even if you don’t wish and also leads to generation of hazardous e-waste.Management of this is challenge.
    As most of our money transactions becoming transparent cases of phishing, hacking also increased. It created a challenge of protection of our digital wealth. For example, STUXNET virus programme created by Israel and USA to spy Iran nuclear programme. It’s attack has taken total control over Iran nuclear lab without entering into country physically.It shows that India or any country also not immune from it.
    We developed drug against many pathological vector born diseases but now vectors developed immunity against drug making it ineffective. Example. MDR TB.
    DNA finger printing technology is breakthrough but challenge is protection of sensitive data about individuals various aspects of health information. As one can use information about allergy sensitivity of individual to harm him or one can use genetic pool of community to aggravate communal tension for his benefit which can be challenge for our plural set up.
    Technology advancement made our life easier but it is taking a toll on environment by increasing level of co2, CFCs and using of resource unsustainably than earth carrying capacity. This challenges future of our generations.


    1. Nice and correct examples.

      Just one advice, the advancements and challenges could have been compared side by side. Your last para is just perfect!



  14. ican

    Third mini thesis- Science and technology have the power of making our life easy and comfortable. But purpose of using it matters more.For example social media can be used to spread awareness as well as rumours. Nuclear energy can be use as a energy source or a weapon of mass destruction.


    1. Hi ican,

      While you have got the right mini-thesis, your statement is a little bit unclear. Sentence composition is very important. And try to make your thesis in a single statement. You could have written something like-
      “Even though science and tech can make our life easy and comfortable, the inherent motive in its usage can make it a bane too.”

      I will tell you a nice way of checking your mini-thesis statement. Just put your mini-thesis in this framework-

      “(Thesis statement) because (Mini-thesis)”

      Examples are good πŸ™‚


      1. ican

        Rewritten statement for minithesis two-Power of science and technology is enormous in making our life comfertable.But same technology also can make our life next to hell.


  15. Akash

    Thank God. Saved my time from not going through this as somehow I just started reading from the middle and came across ‘spaling’. Spoiler! How about proof reading and revising your essay as a tip to write a kick ass essay?


    1. Hi Akash,

      You got the right bird’s view. But there is a little problem in ‘somehow reading from the middle’. You missed the context- The context of ‘deliberate mistake’ as an example to show how blunders are done in a nice write up which can spoil the mood of examiner.
      In case you have missed it, I have made another deliberate mistake of grammatical nature in that same quote.

      Anyways, you helped in making my point and I am happy that at least someone pointed it out!

      Thank you πŸ™‚


      1. Akash

        My apologies. Read it from the start and it was helpful. Now that mains isn’t too far I request you to share as much of your experience as possible. Thank you.


  16. pls reply

    hi sagar,
    i got irse thru ese 2014 and am going to join it in dec. i also wrote cse this time but not sure about the result. i may pass or may not but my preparation for mains is more than good, what i feel. if unfortunately i do not pass pre this time, i will be writing cse next, i want to ask whether i will be able to get time during my training? and, is there any possibility to be granted a leave of 2/3 months before mains?pls reply.u can also add some necessary relevant information which explicitly is not asked in the above questions.


      1. again pls reply

        thanks for the reply.
        did u take short leaves at the time of mains exam or u just wrote it along with the training?? i mean it must be very difficult to prepare along with the training.when the exam is nearing,around 5-6 hrs seems too short,isn’t it? how did u manage it? pls. tell. also, do u have any idea what mr. akshay tripathi(mech,cse 2013 rank-4) did when he was in irss and wrote his mains??


      2. pls reply

        in comments below u had asked me to send a message at facebook and i did. but there was no reply. as i got my pre results yesterday and dejection has crossed all the boundaries, i would request you to give me more insights into the preparation during irse training and leaves when exams will be just 1/2 months away.pls do reply as it will help me in giving shape to my preparation.i hope u will help me in the saddest phase of my life,i guess.


  17. louislitt

    I distinctly remember this post as a comment in some essay related thread on forumias. Treasured the link that you gave in it. Glad that you have elaborated on the same strategy. Thanks a lot, Sir.


    1. Hi pradeep,

      You can ask me anything here. It will be beneficial for everyone then. But if it is too personal, then I can drop a mail at your email id. Drop a reply here.


  18. ecebloggers

    Mini thesis 3:
    Science is of dual use. It can solve as well as create problems.

    The very technologies that advanced civilization like aviation,radio communication were used by terrorists in 9/11 , 26/11


  19. journey

    Thank you so much. You have cleared all my doubts by explaining every step in detail. It’s like you already knew what problems others would have been facing while writing essay. God bless you sir πŸ™‚


      1. akshay

        sir i know its a very silly and faltu question but please tell me how is the quality of mains answer sheets i mean will the fountain pen ink will cast its impression backside will it smudge out or should i use ball pen..plz tell me which one is best


        1. Akshay its not a silly question. The quality of mains answer sheet are excellent. You don’t have to worry about smudging. The only parameter you have to consider while choosing the pen is writing speed.


      2. Sandeep Mallad

        I am new player in this field sir how to deal with essay how to make thesis mini thesis and connector how to use the words and sentences not getting wher to bring fodder for essay plz guide me sir


      3. Sandeep Mallad

        And at the bigening I have to copy or note down any source or research work and copy same in essay at the beginning how u faced this problem and overcome with it plz guide sir Sandeep here.


  20. Annie

    What about philosophical essays….in them how can we bring the thesis …..the best way not to write them only…..but suppose we don’t have any choice in that case what should we do?


    1. Hi Annie,

      Philosophical essays are easiest to have a thesis statement and you must have it there. I will give you an example. Let’s say the topic is “We need intelligence more than honesty”. Here your thesis statement could be something like – “Rather than judging intelligence and honesty as independent entities, it is better to treat them as mutually interdependent, and thus relative quantification is rather impossible to achieve.”
      And then you have to give your best to argue in favor of it.

      All the best πŸ™‚


      1. Annie

        If am not asking for to much…..can I have reviews on one of my essays to know if am going in the right direction or not……only if it’s fine with u😊


      1. First of all i would like to say thanks a lot sir…
        mini thesis:3
        “due to the science and technology innovations now we are facing world most problem of environmental crisis” sorry for grammer mistke.i couldn’t express my thoughts ckearly due to lack of english.once again than you so much for such a wonderfull article…


        1. Hello,

          Good, you are on the right track. You could have written this one in a better way as – “S&T is itself responsible for creating a lot of growth and security challenges.”

          all the best πŸ™‚



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